software development for evaluation of low-grade sources


Bachelor thesis on the topic «Software development for evaluation of low-grade sources» contains 137 pages of text, 7 applications, 18 references, 7 graphic matters. Waste-heat recovery, low-grade sourсes, software Object of the research: low-grade sources Purpose of the research: to define capacity of low-grade source and to choose technology by which will be utilize the energy of this source.
In the end, it has developed the software which allows to evaluate low-grade sources.

Research materials:

scientific articles - A turbine based domestic micro ORC system , techno-elenomic analysis of CHP system supplied by waste forest biomass

Elements of an Annotation

Information found in an annotation may include:
1. qualifications of author(s);
"Based on 20 years of study, William A. Smith, Professor of English at XYZ University...";
2. purpose/scope:
"...sets out to place John Turner in eighteenth century England and show the development of his philosophy in relation to contemporary social mores";
3. audience and level of reading difficulty:
"Smith addresses himself to the scholar, albeit the concluding chapters on capital punishment will be clear to any informed layman";
4. bias or standpoint of author :
"Turner gears his study more to the romantic aspects of the age than the scientific and rational developments";
5. relationship to other works in the field:
"Here Turner departs drastically from A. F. Johnson (Two will not, New York, Riposte Press, 1964) who not only has developed the rational themes of the eighteenth century but is convinced the romantic elements at best are only a skein through the major prose and poetry";
6. findings, results, and conclusions (if available); and
7. format/special features
(e.g., bibliography, glossary, index, survey instruments, testing devices, etc.).

annotation of article "A turbine based domestic micro ORC system":

The author of the article, Piotr Klonowicz, is professor of Turbine Department, Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery. More info here. And about the author. The purpose of this article is to know efficiency of micro ORC system. It will be interesting for power engineers. Also the Piotr Klonowicz is the author another articles that connect with thermal and economic analysis of diffrent systems. The results of this article contain thermodynamic analysis and efficiency of systems with different working fluids and turbines efficiencies.

For the last task i chose the "Work at a thermal power plant. Работа на тепловой электрической станции". This is my presentation:

Small Scale Hydropower Plants Skadin by artem on Scribd

New vocabulary


F fluid-flow machinery - гидродинамические машины
S sawn timber - пиломатериалы, sawnmill - лесопилка
V valve - задвижка

A approximately - около, примерно
B briefly - коротко
C confirm - подтвержать
I improve - улучшать
M mostly - по большей части, в основном
N noticeable - заметный
P profitability - рентабельность
R riddles, puzzels - загадки, resent - недавно
S shortly - коротко

1) Define: load factor, utility factor, plant operating factor, capacity factor, demand factor and diversity factor?
load factor is the ratio of the average load to the peak load during a certain prescribed period of time.
utility factor - It is the ratio of the units of electricity generated per year to the capacity of the plant installed in station.
operating factor - It is the ratio of the duration during which the plant is in actual service, to the total duration of the period of time considered.
capacity factor - It is the ratio of the average loads on a machine or equipment to the rating of the machine or equipment, for a certain period of time considered.
demand factor - This ratio of' the maximum demand of a system to its connected load is termed as demand factor
diversity factor - The ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands to the maximum demand of the total group is known as diversity factor.

2) What is the difference between demand factor and diversity factor?
demand factor actually contains the maximum demand of system while diversity facotr contains the sum of maximum demands of group. And demand factor always less that one while diversity factor always more that one.

3) What is ‘diversity factor’ ? List its advantages in a power system.
diversity factor - The ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands to the maximum demand of the total group.
the capacity of the plant will be smaller, resulting in fixed charges.

4) Prove that the load factor of a power system is improved by an increase in diversity of load.
With a given number of consumers, higher the value of diversity factor, lower will be the maximum demand on the plant

5) What is meant by load curve? Explain its importance in power generation.
Load Curve It is a curve showing the variation of power with time. It shows the value of a specific load for each unit of the period covered. The unit of time considered may be hour, days, weeks, months or years.

6) Differentiate ‘dump power’, ‘firm power’ and ‘prime power’.
Dump Power - This term is used in hydro plants and it shows the power in excess of the load requirements and it is made available by surplus water.
Firm Power - It is the power, which should always be available even under emergency conditions.
Prime Power - It is power, may be mechanical, hydraulic or thermal that is always available for conversion into electric power